Sir Francis Drake Inhaltsverzeichnis
Sir Francis Drake war ein englischer Freibeuter und Entdecker, später Vizeadmiral und der erste englische Weltumsegler. Sir Francis Drake (* um in Tavistock, Devon; † Januar bei Portobelo, Panama) war ein englischer Freibeuter und Entdecker, später Vizeadmiral. Sir Francis Drake war ein echter Abenteurer, ein Pirat im Dienste der Königin, der die Welt umsegelte, Seeschlachten focht und der englischen Seemacht zu. Pirat der Königin von England, Seefahrer, Freibeuter, Admiral und Navigator. Drake kam in den frühen er Jahren in Crowndale, in Devon zur Welt und stieg. David Fermer: Sir Francis Drake | Als Freibeuter im Dienste ihrer Majestät Elisabeth I. plündert Drake vornehmlich spanische Schiffe und Hafenstädte. Bei einem.
Sir Francis Drake war ein echter Abenteurer, ein Pirat im Dienste der Königin, der die Welt umsegelte, Seeschlachten focht und der englischen Seemacht zu. Sir Francis Drake war ein englischer Freibeuter und Entdecker, später Vizeadmiral und der erste englische Weltumsegler. Im zweiten Teil der "Terra X"-Reihe "Freibeuter der Meere" erzählen wir die grandiose Geschichte von Sir Francis Drake – und wie seine. Von ihm lernte Drake die Kunst des Navigierens. Diese Email-Adresse ist bereits go here uns registriert. Daher ist nicht genau zu ermitteln, wo er sich während des Jahres aufgehalten hat. Drake sollte Truppen nach Rathlin Island transportieren. Drake steht am Anfang unseres Turbokapitalismus — effizient und erfolgreich. Dafür benötigst du dein Ausweisdokument. Mailadresse bereits bekannt, bitte mit bestehendem Account einloggen please click for source Kinderprofil anlegen. Hier hatte Sir Walter Raleigh versucht, eine englische Kolonie zu gründen. Juli zogen sie sich auf die Insel Bastimentos zurück. Charlotte link Unternehmung war ein Fiasko.
Among his men were John Winter, commander of one of the vessels, and officer Thomas Doughty. Major tensions flared between Drake and Doughty during the trip, potentially motivated by political intrigue.
Upon arriving off the coast of Argentina, Drake had Doughty arrested with the accusation of planned mutiny.
After a brief and possibly illegal trial, Doughty was convicted and beheaded. Drake then led the fleet into the Strait of Magellan to reach the Pacific Ocean.
They were soon caught in a storm, with Winter's ship reversing course and returning to England. Continuing to face stormy weather, Drake remained in his flagship, the newly dubbed Golden Hind and only remaining vessel from the original squad, sailing up the coasts of Chile and Peru and plundering an unprotected Spanish merchant ship full of bullion.
Drake reputedly landed off the coast of California, claiming it for Queen Elizabeth. There is some debate about Drake's voyages, with certain historians asserting that Drake deliberately recorded misleading geographical information to cover the true scope of his travels from the Spanish.
There has been conjecture that Drake in fact reached the Oregon coast or even as far north as British Columbia and Alaska.
Even with the continuing debate, in the U. After repairing the ship and replenishing food supplies, Drake set sail across the Pacific, through the Indian Ocean and around the Cape of Good Hope back to England, landing at Plymouth in The treasure Drake captured made him a wealthy man, and the Queen knighted him in That year he also was appointed mayor of Plymouth and became a member of the House of Commons.
Between and , relations between England and Spain grew worse. Elizabeth unleashed Drake on the Spanish in a series of raids that captured several cities in North and South America, taking treasure and inflicting damage on Spanish morale.
He ordered the construction of a vast armada of warships, fully equipped and manned. In a preemptive strike, Drake conducted a raid on the Spanish city of Cadiz, destroying more than 30 ships and thousands of tons of supplies.
The English fleet sailed out to meet them, relying upon long-range cannon fire to significantly damage the armada over the ensuing days.
The next evening, Lord Howard and Drake organized fire ships to sail right into the Spanish fleet. They did little damage, but the ensuing panic caused some of the Spanish captains to cut anchor and scatter.
Strong winds carried many of the ships towards the North Sea, and the English followed in pursuit. At the Battle of Gravelines, the English began getting the better of the Spaniards.
With the armada formation broken, the lumbering Spanish galleons were easy targets for the English ships, which could quickly move in to fire one or two well-aimed broadsides before scurrying off to safety.
By late afternoon, the English pulled back. Due to weather and the presence of enemy forces, Medina Sidonia was forced to take the armada north around Scotland and back to Spain.
As the fleet sailed away from the Scottish coast, a strong gale drove many ships onto the Irish rocks. Thousands of Spaniards drowned, and those who reached land were later executed by English authorities.
Less than half of the original fleet returned to Spain, sustaining huge casualties. In Queen Elizabeth ordered Drake to seek out and destroy any remaining ships of the armada and help Portuguese rebels in Lisbon fight against Spanish occupiers.
The expedition instead sustained major losses in terms of lives and resources. Drake returned home, and for the next several years busied himself with duties as mayor of Plymouth.
After the defeat at Nombre de Dios, Drake's fleet moved farther west and anchored off the coast of Portobelo, Panama. There, Drake contracted dysentery and, on January 28, , died of a fever.
He was buried in a lead coffin at sea near Portobelo. Although his birth date is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force.
His birth date is estimated from contemporary sources such as: "Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith "  This would date his birth to A date of c.
He was the oldest of the twelve sons  of Edmund Drake — , a Protestant farmer, and his wife Mary Mylwaye.
The first son was alleged to have been named after his godfather Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford.
There Drake's father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the King's Navy. He was ordained deacon and was made vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway.
Francis Drake married Mary Newman at St. Budeaux church, Plymouth, in July She died 12 years later, in Drake likely engaged in commerce among England, the Low Countries and France.
At the age of eighteen he was purser of a ship which sailed to the Bay of Biscay. At twenty ca. In , Drake, made his first voyage to the Americas, sailing under Captain John Lovell on one of a fleet of ships owned by the Hawkins family.
They attacked Portuguese towns and ships on the coast of West Africa and then sailed to the Americas and sold the captured cargoes of slaves to Spanish plantations.
He escaped along with John Hawkins, surviving the attack by swimming. Drake's hostility towards the Spanish is said to have started with this incident and Drake vowed revenge.
In , his reputation enabled him to proceed to the West Indies with two vessels under his command. He renewed his visit the next year for the sole purpose of obtaining information.
In , he embarked on his first major independent enterprise. This was the point at which the silver and gold treasure of Peru had to be landed and sent overland to the Caribbean Sea , where galleons from Spain would pick it up at the town of Nombre de Dios.
Drake left Plymouth on 24 May , with a crew of 73 men in two small vessels, the Pascha 70 tons and the Swan 25 tons , to capture Nombre de Dios.
His first raid was late in July Drake and his men captured the town and its treasure. When his men noticed that Drake was bleeding profusely from a wound, they insisted on withdrawing to save his life and left the treasure.
Drake stayed in the area for almost a year, raiding Spanish shipping and attempting to capture a treasure shipment.
He raided the waters around Darien in modern Panama with a crew including many French privateers including Guillaume Le Testu , a French buccaneer, and African slaves Maroons who had escaped the Spanish.
One of these men was Diego, who under Drake became a free man was also a capable ship builder. After their attack on the richly laden mule train, Drake and his party found that they had captured around 20 tons of silver and gold.
They buried much of the treasure, as it was too much for their party to carry, and made off with a fortune in gold.
Wounded, Le Testu was captured and later beheaded. The small band of adventurers dragged as much gold and silver as they could carry back across some 18 miles of jungle-covered mountains to where they had left the raiding boats.
When they got to the coast, the boats were gone. Drake and his men, downhearted, exhausted and hungry, had nowhere to go and the Spanish were not far behind.
At this point, Drake rallied his men, buried the treasure on the beach, and built a raft to sail with two volunteers ten miles along the surf-lashed coast to where they had left the flagship.
When Drake finally reached its deck, his men were alarmed at his bedraggled appearance. Fearing the worst, they asked him how the raid had gone.
Drake could not resist a joke and teased them by looking downhearted. Then he laughed, pulled a necklace of Spanish gold from around his neck and said "Our voyage is made, lads!
It was during this expedition that he climbed a high tree in the central mountains of the Isthmus of Panama and thus became the first Englishman to see the Pacific Ocean.
He remarked as he saw it that he hoped one day an Englishman would be able to sail it—which he would do years later as part of his circumnavigation of the world.
When Drake returned to Plymouth after the raids, the government signed a temporary truce with King Philip II of Spain and so was unable to acknowledge Drake's accomplishment officially.
Drake was considered a hero in England and a pirate in Spain for his raids. Drake was present at the Rathlin Island massacre in Despite their surrender, Norreys' troops killed all the defenders and more than civilian men, women and children of Clan MacDonnell.
Therefore, the remaining leader of the Gaelic defence against English power, Sorley Boy MacDonnell , was forced to stay on the mainland.
Essex wrote in his letter to Queen Elizabeth's secretary, that following the attack Sorley Boy "was likely to have run mad for sorrow, tearing and tormenting himself and saying that he there lost all that he ever had.
With the success of the Panama isthmus raid in , Elizabeth I of England sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas.
Drake used the plans that Sir Richard Grenville had received the patent for in from Elizabeth, which was rescinded a year later after protests from Philip of Spain.
Diego was once again employed under Drake; his fluency in Spanish and English would make him a useful interpreter when Spaniards or Spanish-speaking Portuguese were captured.
He was employed as Drake's servant and was paid wages, just like the rest of the crew. They were forced to take refuge in Falmouth, Cornwall , from where they returned to Plymouth for repair.
After this major setback, Drake set sail again on 13 December aboard Pelican with four other ships and men.
He soon added a sixth ship, Mary formerly Santa Maria , a Portuguese merchant ship that had been captured off the coast of Africa near the Cape Verde Islands.
He also added its captain, Nuno da Silva, a man with considerable experience navigating in South American waters. Drake's fleet suffered great attrition; he scuttled both Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing.
He made landfall at the gloomy bay of San Julian , in what is now Argentina. Ferdinand Magellan had called here half a century earlier, where he put to death some mutineers.
Drake's men saw weathered and bleached skeletons on the grim Spanish gibbets. Following Magellan's example, Drake tried and executed his own "mutineer" Thomas Doughty.
The crew discovered that Mary had rotting timbers, so they burned the ship. Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan.
On his voyage to interfere with Spanish treasure fleets, Drake had several quarrels with his co-commander Thomas Doughty and on 3 June , accused him of witchcraft and charged him with mutiny and treason in a shipboard trial.
The main pieces of evidence against Doughty were the testimony of the ship's carpenter, Edward Bright, who after the trial was promoted to master of the ship Marigold , and Doughty's admission of telling Lord Burghley , a vocal opponent of agitating the Spanish, of the intent of the voyage.
Drake consented to his request of Communion and dined with him, of which Francis Fletcher had this strange account:. And after this holy repast, they dined also at the same table together, as cheerfully, in sobriety, as ever in their lives they had done aforetime, each cheering up the other, and taking their leave, by drinking each to other, as if some journey only had been in hand.
Drake had Thomas Doughty beheaded on 2 July When the ship's chaplain Francis Fletcher in a sermon suggested that the woes of the voyage in January were connected to the unjust demise of Doughty, Drake chained the clergyman to a hatch cover and pronounced him excommunicated.
The three remaining ships of his convoy departed for the Magellan Strait at the southern tip of South America. A few weeks later September Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed one of the three ships, the Marigold captained by John Thomas in the strait and caused another, the Elizabeth captained by John Wynter , to return to England, leaving only the Pelican.
After this passage, the Pelican was pushed south and discovered an island that Drake called Elizabeth Island.
Captain Wynter ordered the collection of great amounts of bark — hence the scientific name. Despite popular lore, it seems unlikely that Drake reached Cape Horn or the eponymous Drake Passage ,  because his descriptions do not fit the first and his shipmates denied having seen an open sea.
Drake pushed onwards in his lone flagship, now renamed the Golden Hind in honour of Sir Christopher Hatton after his coat of arms.
Some Spanish ships were captured, and Drake used their more accurate charts. Before reaching the coast of Peru , Drake visited Mocha Island , where he was seriously injured by hostile Mapuche.
It would come to be called the Cacafuego. Drake gave chase and eventually captured the treasure ship, which proved his most profitable capture.
Drake was naturally pleased at his good luck in capturing the galleon, and he showed it by dining with the captured ship's officers and gentleman passengers.
He offloaded his captives a short time later, and gave each one gifts appropriate to their rank, as well as a letter of safe conduct.
Prior to Drake's voyage, the western coast of North America had only been partially explored in by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo who sailed for Spain.
On 5 June , the ship briefly made first landfall at South Cove, Cape Arago, just south of Coos Bay, Oregon, and then sailed south while searching for a suitable harbour to repair his ailing ship.
Drake left the Pacific coast, heading southwest to catch the winds that would carry his ship across the Pacific, and a few months later reached the Moluccas , a group of islands in the western Pacific, in eastern modern-day Indonesia.
At this time Diego died from wounds he had sustained earlier in the voyage, Drake was saddened at his death having become a good friend.
After the sailors waited three days for convenient tides and had dumped cargo. Befriending Sultan Babullah of Ternate in the Moluccas, Drake and his men became involved in some intrigues with the Portuguese there.
He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa, eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hope , and reached Sierra Leone by 22 July The Queen's half-share of the cargo surpassed the rest of the crown's income for that entire year.
Drake was hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth and the second such voyage arriving with at least one ship intact, after Elcano 's in The Queen declared that all written accounts of Drake's voyages were to become the Queen's secrets of the Realm, and Drake and the other participants of his voyages on the pain of death sworn to their secrecy; she intended to keep Drake's activities away from the eyes of rival Spain.
Drake presented the Queen with a jewel token commemorating the circumnavigation. Taken as a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico, it was made of enamelled gold and bore an African diamond and a ship with an ebony hull.
For her part, the Queen gave Drake a jewel with her portrait, an unusual gift to bestow upon a commoner, and one that Drake sported proudly in his portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts now at the National Maritime Museum , Greenwich.
On one side is a state portrait of Elizabeth by the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard , on the other a sardonyx cameo of double portrait busts, a regal woman and an African male.
The "Drake Jewel", as it is known today, is a rare documented survivor among sixteenth-century jewels; it is conserved at the Victoria and Albert Museum , London.
After receiving his knighthood Drake unilaterally adopted the armorials of the ancient Devon family of Drake of Ash , near Musbury , to whom he claimed a distant but unspecified kinship.
These arms were: Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules ,  and the crest, a dexter arm Proper grasping a battle axe Sable, headed Argent.
The head of that family, also a distinguished sailor, Sir Bernard Drake d. That dispute led to "a box on the ear" being given to Sir Francis by Sir Bernard at court, as recorded by John Prince — in his "Worthies of Devon", first published in Sable a fess wavy between two pole-stars [Arctic and Antarctic] argent; and for his crest, a ship on a globe under ruff, held by a cable with a hand out of the clouds; over it this motto, Auxilio Divino; underneath, Sic Parvis Magna; in the rigging whereof is hung up by the heels a wivern, gules, which was the arms of Sir Bernard Drake.
The motto, Sic Parvis Magna , translated literally, is: "Thus great things from small things come ". The full achievement is depicted in the form of a large coloured plaster overmantel in the Lifetimes Gallery at Buckland Abbey .
Nevertheless, Drake continued to quarter his new arms with the wyvern gules. Arms of Drake of Ash: Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules.
Sir Francis Drake with his new heraldic achievement , with motto: Sic Parvis Magna , translated literally: "Thus great things from small things come ".
He lived there for fifteen years, until his final voyage, and it remained in his family for several generations. Buckland Abbey is now in the care of the National Trust and a number of mementos of his life are displayed there.
Drake was politically astute, and although known for his private and military endeavours, he was an influential figure in politics during the time he spent in Britain.
Often abroad, there is little evidence to suggest he was active in Westminster, despite being a member of parliament on three occasions.
After returning from his voyage of circumnavigation, Drake became the Mayor of Plymouth , in September He did not actively participate at this point, and on 17 February he was granted leave of absence "for certain his necessary business in the service of her Majesty".
Drake became a member of parliament again in for Bossiney  on the forming of the 5th Parliament of Elizabeth I. He spent the time covered by the next two parliamentary terms engaged in other duties and an expedition to Portugal.
War had already been declared by Phillip II after the Treaty of Nonsuch , so the Queen through Francis Walsingham ordered Sir Francis Drake to lead an expedition to attack the Spanish colonies in a kind of preemptive strike.
An expedition left Plymouth in September with Drake in command of twenty-one ships with 1, soldiers under Christopher Carleill.
He first attacked Vigo in Spain and held the place for two weeks ransoming supplies. He then plundered Santiago in the Cape Verde islands after which the fleet then sailed across the Atlantic, sacked the port of Santo Domingo , and captured the city of Cartagena de Indias in present-day Colombia.
At Cartagena, Drake released one hundred Turks held as slaves. After the raids he then went on to find Sir Walter Raleigh 's settlement much further north at Roanoke which he replenished and also took back with him all of the original colonists before Sir Richard Greynvile arrived with supplies and more colonists.
He finally reached England on 22 July, when he sailed into Portsmouth , England to a hero's welcome. On 15 March , Drake accepted a new commission with several purposes: disrupt the shipping routes to slow supplies from Italy and Andalucia to Lisbon , to trouble enemy fleets that were in their own ports, and to capture Spanish ships laden with treasure.
Drake was also to confront and attack the Armada had it already sailed for England. Drake claimed he had sunk 39 ships, but other contemporary sources are lower, specifically some Spanish sources which suggest losses as low as 25 ships.
Vincent , intercepting and destroying ships on the Spanish supply lines. Drake was vice admiral in command of the English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham , when it overcame the Spanish Armada that was attempting to invade England in The Spanish ship was known to be carrying substantial funds to pay the Spanish Army in the Low Countries.
Drake's ship had been leading the English pursuit of the Armada by means of a lantern. By extinguishing this for the capture, Drake put the fleet into disarray overnight.
On the night of 29 July, along with Howard, Drake organised fire-ships , causing the majority of the Spanish captains to break formation and sail out of Calais into the open sea.
The next day, Drake was present at the Battle of Gravelines. Coming up to them, there has passed some common shot between some of our fleet and some of them; and as far as we perceive, they are determined to sell their lives with blows.
The most famous but probably apocryphal anecdote about Drake relates that, prior to the battle, he was playing a game of bowls on Plymouth Hoe.
On being warned of the approach of the Spanish fleet, Drake is said to have remarked that there was plenty of time to finish the game and still beat the Spaniards.
There is no known eyewitness account of this incident and the earliest retelling of it was printed 37 years later.
It might also have been later ascribed to the stoic attribute of British culture. Bronze plaque by Joseph Boehm , , base of Drake statue, Tavistock.
In , the year after defeating the Armada the English sent their own to attack Spain, Drake and Sir John Norreys were given three tasks: seek out and destroy the remaining ships, support the rebels in Lisbon , Portugal against King Philip II then king of Spain and Portugal , and take the Azores if possible.
Drake's seafaring career continued into his mid-fifties. In , he failed to conquer the port of Las Palmas , and following a disastrous campaign against Spanish America, where he suffered a number of defeats, he unsuccessfully attacked San Juan de Puerto Rico, eventually losing the Battle of San Juan.