In order for the lynx to use its carnassials, it must chew the meat with its head to its side. There are large spaces between the four canines and the rest of the teeth, and the second upper premolars are absent, to ensure that the bite goes as deeply as possible into the prey.
The paws, broadened by the wide-spaced metatarsals ,  can spread as wide as 10 centimetres 3. The Canada lynx differs from the bobcat in having longer ear tufts, a greyer and less red coat, less distinct spotting on the coat, a slightly shorter tail completely black on the tip rather than only on the upper side, and larger paws.
The Canada lynx tends to be nocturnal active mainly at night , like the snowshoe hare , its major prey. Nevertheless, activity may be observed during daytime.
In it was discovered that in Maine, the fisher will also occasionally hunt Canada lynxes, with the mustelids often ending up succeeding when encounters are recorded both in part due to the fisher's aggression and the less aggressive nature of the lynx in comparison to the American bobcat, which in turn serves as the fisher's predator in areas where the two carnivores meet.
Canada lynxes establish home ranges that vary widely in size, depending upon the method of measurement.
The two common methods are examining the tracks of the lynx on snow snow-tracking and radio telemetry ; snow-tracking generally gives smaller sizes for home ranges.
Studies based on snow-tracking have estimated home range sizes of The study coincided with an immigration of lynxes into Minnesota, where hares occurred in small numbers.
The study suggested that individuals tend to avoid one another and thus passively defend their ranges. Factors such as availability of prey primarily snowshoe hare , density of lynxes and the topography of the habitat determine the shape and size of the home range.
A study showed that the mean size of home ranges trebled—from Exclusively carnivores, the Canadian lynx depends heavily on snowshoe hares for food.
Consequently, a period of hare scarcity occurs every 8 to 11 years. The Canada lynx tends to be less selective in summer and autumn, preying on other small mammals, though snowshoe hares continue to prevail in the diet.
A study of coyotes and Canada lynxes in southwest Yukon Territory showed that during that phase of the snowshoe hare abundance cycle when their numbers increased, both predators killed more hares than were needed for their subsistence; lynxes need to kill 0.
Coyotes, with a success rate of Lynxes rarely cached their kills, unlike coyotes, and this may have led to incomplete consumption of some kills.
During the cyclic decrease in snowshoe hare numbers, both predators hunted for the same time period as they did when hares were abundant, but lynxes killed more hares than they did earlier.
Moreover, lynxes supplemented their diet with red squirrels. Canada lynxes hunt around twilight or at night, the time when snowshoe hares tend to be active.
Young ungulates are given a throat bite to suffocate them to death. They can eat their kill immediately or cache them in snow or leaves to eat them over the next few days.
The breeding season in Canada lynx lasts only for a month, ranging from March to May, depending on the local climate. Females come into oestrus only once during this period, lasting for three to five days.
Mating can occur six times in one hour. The female lynx will only mate with one male each season, but the male may mate with multiple females.
Gestation lasts around 64 days, so that the young are born in May or early June. Before birth, the female prepares a maternal den, usually in very thick brush, and typically inside thickets of shrubs or trees or woody debris.
The dens are generally situated mid-slope and face south or southwest. Litters contain from one to four kittens, and tend to be much larger when prey is abundant.
They are blind and helpless for the first fourteen days, and weaned at twelve weeks. The mother brings the food to her kittens and allows them to play with it before eating it, thus training their hunting skills.
Kittens leave the den after about five weeks, and begin hunting at between seven and nine months of age.
They leave the mother at around ten months, as the next breeding season begins, but do not reach the full adult size until around two years old.
Females reach sexual maturity at ten months, although they often delay breeding for another year, while males reach maturity at two or three years.
Canada lynx have been reported to live for up to fourteen years in captivity although the lifespan is likely much shorter in the wild.
The Canada lynx is found in northern and mixed forests across Canada and Alaska. It is, however, absent in the relatively treeless regions of the Great Plains and the northern coasts, which are outside the natural range of the snowshoe hare.
Due to human activity, the Canada lynx is no longer found on Prince Edward Island or on the mainland of Nova Scotia,  although there are two known areas of Canada lynx populations in the Cape Breton Highlands.
The Canada lynx is a threatened species in the contiguous United States. The dead lynx was preserved by Bristol Museum and Art Gallery , and scientists identified it after analysis over a century later.
They concluded that it had probably been captive for some time, perhaps as an exotic pet or part of a travelling menagerie, but may have survived for a substantial period after escaping.
They considered it "the earliest recorded example of an exotic cat on the loose in the UK ". Starting in , the Colorado Division of Wildlife began a program reintroducing a wild lynx population of 96 to Colorado.
While showing early signs of promise, biologists say it will take more than a decade to determine whether the program is a success.
However, in lynx den visits identified 16 native-born Colorado lynx, and the next year, 39 new lynx kittens were identified, confirming the possibility of successful reintroduction.
In several of these lynx were shot and killed by unknown persons. In some cases only the radio tracking collars were found, leading to suspicions of fur poaching; in other cases the animals were shot and the body left intact.
By , after an year effort, the lynx had been successfully reintroduced into Colorado , where it had become extinct in the s. The initial introduction was in the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado, but self-sustaining populations were established throughout the south-central Colorado Rockies as far north as Summit County by In Colorado the red squirrel is an important secondary food source when snowshoe hares are scarce.
It was found helpful to rest and feed the animals well before releasing them in prime condition during the spring thaw. In northern Canada, the abundance of lynx can be estimated from the records kept of the number caught each year for their fur.
Records have been kept by the Hudson's Bay Company and Canadian government since the s. The exceptionally long data set from historical records of fur purchases from trappers is a common case study, appearing in many secondary school and university textbooks worldwide.
This lynx is a specialist predator , eating snowshoe hare almost exclusively when they are available. The population variation of the lynx and the hare is an example of a predator-prey cycle.
Environmental factors such as weather and forest plant growth that may affect this population variation have been studied. The Canada lynx is trapped for its fur, and has declined in many areas due to habitat loss; however, the IUCN lists them as a species of Least Concern.
In December Wildlife officials say Canada lynx no longer need special protections in the United States following measures to preserve populations of the snow-loving big cats.
Fish and Wildlife Service said Thursday it will begin drafting a rule to revoke the lynx's threatened species status, which has been in place since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Canada lynx  Conservation status. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 22, Retrieved May 6, Cat News Special Issue Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation 2nd ed.
Archived from the original PDF on April 16, Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. Walker's Mammals of the World 6th ed.
Canadian Journal of Zoology. A Field Guide to the Mammals: North America North of Mexico 3rd ed. A Natural History of the Carnivores.
A Field Guide to Animal Tracks 3rd ed. Retrieved 19 July The Mammals of the Southern African Sub-region 3rd revised ed.
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